Calculator-Controlled Robots (.PDF): This activity booklet from NASA lays out an entire multi-week lesson plan for programming Texas Instruments calculator robots. The language that the calculators use (TI-Basic) is very approachable and great for beginning programmers. The equipment necessary to turn a TI calculator into a robot are located here.
Furby Autopsy: Not as gruesome as it sounds! This page tells the story of the Furby Toh-Loo-Ka, who mysteriously began malfunctioning ... his owner disassembled him to find his cause of death. Great teaching lesson/example for troubleshooting robotics/engineering issues.
The Mind Project: This site provides both a K-12 and undergraduate curriculum for science-related fields. Tons of interactive modules and Flash games. The modules focus primarily on robotics/neuroscience/cognitive science.